The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) or EIA, is a test that identifies and gauges the number of antibodies in your blood. Antibodies are proteins that your body creates to fight antigens which are a harmful substance. This test can be utilized to identify whether you have antibodies needed to protect you against a certain infectious condition or not.
ELISA test is regularly utilized as a screening instrument before additional tests are requested. A specialist may recommend this test in case you’re having signs or manifestations of the conditions below. Your primary care physician may likewise arrange this test on the off chance that they need to preclude any of these conditions.
An ELISA test might be utilized to diagnose:
- Coronavirus Covid-19
- Lyme Disease
- Pernicious Anemia
- Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
- Squamous Cell Carcinoma
- Varicella-Zoster Virus
- Zika Virus
The ELISA test is basic and clear. The ELISA test starts with the sample of your blood. Initially, a needle will be put in one of your veins to draw a little sample of blood. At the point when enough blood has been collected, the needle will be expelled and the sample will be collected.
The blood test will be sent to a research facility for investigation. In the lab, a specialist will add the example to a petri dish containing the particular antigen identified with the condition for which you are being tried. On the off chance that your blood contains antibodies to the antigen, the two will tie together. The professional will check this by adding a catalyst to the petri dish and seeing how your blood and the antigen respond.
You may have the condition if the substance of the dish change shading. How much change the catalyst causes permits the specialist to decide the nearness and measure of antibody.
ELISA test does not necessarily have to be performed only in a lab. You can choose from Target-specific ELISA kits such as IL-4 ELISA Kit which can help in quickly streamlining your immunodetection experiment.
Types of ELISA Tests
Following are the 4 types of ELISA tests:
The Direct ELISA test is viewed as the least complex in comparison to other types of ELISA tests. This type is alluded to as direct utilization of just a single antibody which is required for the detection procedure.
Indirect ELISAs require the utilization of two antibodies to make a detection. This includes a two-stage process, expanding the time associated with completing the test.
The Competitive ELISA test is frequently performed to detect small molecules, for example, lipids, hormones, and little peptides. However, bigger molecules can also be determined but it will require a larger concentration.
The Sandwich ELISAs tests are in general the most widely used and recognized type of ELISA tests.
As the name proposes in this test the subjected antigen is sandwiched between two antibodies, these assays may either be indirect or direct.