The various kinds of DOEs use microstructured surface profiles for their optical functionality. By proper optical design a DOE can reshape light to practically any distribution, basically by diffraction and then beam propagation to the far field. The DOE changes only the intensity distribution and phase, while  maintaining the polarization and chromatic properties of the source light. DOE optical components such as: beam splitters, pattern shapers, kinoforms, beam shapers and gratings are the most used DOE families today.

With their engineering adaptability, DOEs have optical features that can’t be achieved by other optical components, or if they can be achieved require complex and costly optical systems instead of a single DOE component. In addition, in contrast with refractive optical components, DOEs are normally a lot more compact and light, making them easy to integrate in  most current product applications.

High power DOEs are produced using standard semiconductor processes. Basically, utilizing standard etch and Lithography methods. Using optical component design with semiconductor fabrication enables one to achieve absolute angular accuracy in DOEs, a feature that does not exist in refractive optics.

Original history of diffractive lenses

Diffraction was first seen by Francesco Maria Grimaldi in the year 1665. Thus, It was Grimaldi who originally used the term diffraction. The investigation of diffraction was later continued by James Gregory, Sir Isaac Newton, Thomas Youthful, etc. Later, Augustin-Jean Fresnel utilized Huygens’ wave theory to clarify the diffraction phenomenon. A lot later, researchers, for example, Poincaré, Sommerfeld, Kirchhoff, and Kottler, to give some examples, added to the theories in the field. Sommerfeld himself characterized diffraction by what it was definitely not, expressing that diffraction could be viewed as any twisting of beams not brought about by refraction or reflection.

Optical components, surfaces, or interfaces change the behaviour of light beams by changing their properties, for example, their intensity, wave phase, direction, and polarization. These beam manipulations are achieved through the optical shaping techniques of refraction, reflection, filtering, and diffraction.

With the capacity to engineer and fabricate various kinds of components, one should take a look at the applications utilizing DOEs. We see DOEs both in commercial and industrial business sectors (for example mechanical measurement instruments, clinical-medical products, and in computing/communication devices). Basically, DOEs empower our advanced life in pretty much every product class created in the recent years. This pattern is speeding up continually. We are really astonished by new applications yet we shouldn’t be. DOEs enable engineers to improve a wide range of products. These improvements empower almost every business sector today.