Belt conveyor is a type of material handling tool that is used for moving bulk material like salt, ore, grains, etc., from one place to another. They are made up of two or more than two pulleys over which a loop of conveyor belt rotates endlessly for transporting materials. One or all the pulleys may be powered with the help of motors. The powered pulley is known as the ‘drive pulley’, whereas the unpowered one is called the ‘idler pulley’. Material handling conveyors are used for transporting boxes, while large-volume conveyors are used for transporting agricultural materials and natural resources.
The size of belt conveyors can also vary significantly depending on the use. While smaller ones may be used for transporting small items of everyday use, the larger ones are used to transport heavy materials and goods. This machine are detailed in the following sections for gaining an informed understanding.
Importance of Information Conveyor Belts
1. The belt of a conveyor is a very important component: In a belt conveyor, it is the belt that is of prime importance. Therefore, its construction must be known in detail. A belt is usually made up of one or more layers of materials and is usually made up of rubber or PVC (polyvinyl chloride). Belts that take care of general materials are made of two layers –the Carcass and Cover.
The cover may be made up of many types of plastic or rubber compounds, whereas the carcass is created from cotton, polyester or nylon. The cover is the surface layer, while at the core of the belt, there is the carcass that provides it with the shape and strength needed to handle materials effectively.
2. Aligning a conveyor belt: One of the major issues that can happen with a belt conveyor can be related to its alignment. If a belt starts moving from the left to the right of its center, then there is a problem with its alignment and necessary actions may have to be taken to correct it. An alignment issue can be related to the belt tightness, head roller, snub roller, return, and carry idlers. Therefore, many types of trials may have to be taken after fixing each issue, so that correct alignment can be achieved after one or many types of combinations.
3. Putting on the right tension: In a belt conveyor, the tension on its belt must be at an optimum level to allow it to function correctly. However, with time, the tension can get released and the belt may become slack. For achieving the right tension once again, the rollers may have to be adjusted correctly to revive proper uniformity. At times, the motor may also be at fault regarding this issue and then it may have to be examined. With an incorrect tension, a conveyor will start behaving abruptly, and finally the alignment of the belt may also suffer.
4. The motors that are used in the machine: Belt conveyors generally make use of AC speed control motors or Brushless DC motors or Gear motors (BLDC motors). Speed control motors are used where the speed may need to be varied during operation, whereas for constant speed operations, BLDC motors are usually chosen. Irrespective of the load, BLDC motors provide a constant torque and large range of speed control options. Hence, different types of motors are used for different purposes and a correct selection must be made for making a satisfactory purchase.
These are some of the important aspects related to a belt conveyor machine that can be very helpful while selecting. This machine has numerous applications at a large number of places as well as in many industries, and that is why it is important to get some knowledge regarding them.