Civil Lawsuits are cases, which are filed between different individuals, businesses, or against the state. The intention behind filing a majority of civil lawsuits is to seek financial claims and compensations. The compensation is claimed to arise out of an error, oversight, or negligence done by one party over the other.
In a Civil Lawsuit, the complainant referred to as the ‘Plaintiff’, will ask the Court to take action against the ‘Defendant’. According to the website of leading law firm, The Waltman, there might be three major actions, which the Plaintiff will ask of the Court-
i. Request the Court to order the Defendant to award financial damages to the Plaintiff as has been claimed.
ii. File an Injunction stopping the Defendant from doing something he was already in process of.
iii. The Plaintiff may seek a Declaratory Judgment that dictates what rights do the parties have in specific regard.
In this article, we are going to discuss the five major types of Civil Cases every individual should be aware of.
List of 5 Civil Cases you should be aware of
1. Tort Cases-
In legal terms, a tort refers to a ‘wrongful act’, which has brought damage to the individual. This damage can be physical injury, loss or reputation, and credibility (defamation), or harm done to a property.
The greatest number of tort cases, which are filed relate to Personal Injury, Medical Malpractice, Fraud, Cheating, aggravated assault, and defamation. Tort cases usually seek financial compensation to ensure medical treatments and other recoveries are covered.
2. Contract Cases-
Contract Cases can be filed when one or the other party has failed to live up to their end of the agreement. Contract cases can be filed for both written as well as verbal promises. If the defendant does not have a valid excuse or reason to not honor the contract, he has to pay damages.
Some of the most popular types of contract cases involve taking money for a job, but not doing it. Taking advance for the delivery of the goods and not delivering them within a stipulated agreed upon time. Outstanding payments can also be a cause for filing contract civil cases.
3. Equitable Claims Cases-
In such cases, the Court orders an ‘Injunction’ after the Plaintiff is able to impress upon the court the need for one. The intention of an equitable claims case is to prevent a certain action from happening, which can harm the plaintiff in the near future.
In other words, if the said action is prevented by the court through an injunction, the plaintiff will not face loss. This is both in physical as well as in material terms. Property rights, developers creating new real estate, etc. are all examples of equitable claims cases.
4. Class-Action Civil Cases-
Many people think that class-action lawsuits are very similar to tort cases. However, there is one small difference. In class-action suits, the plaintiff is not one individual, but a group of people who have suffered in the same way.
For example, a number of people coming together and seeking damages from a pharmaceutical company for a poorly tested drug, which caused serious illnesses or loss of life. In most instances, the suit is filed against a company.
5. Civil Lawsuits against the State-
Many a time, citizens may file a civil case against the state. This in reality means a case against the sitting government and its officials on the day. The case is usually filed when the citizen thinks that he has suffered some form of financial or physical loss because of a specific policy of the state.
For example, changes announced by the state in government employment opportunities (eligibility) can be a reason why some individuals approach the court to file a civil case. There are thousands if not millions of civil cases filed by citizens against their governments every year.
The Final Word
It should be pointed out that civil cases can get pretty complicated and complex. This is why normal people who are thinking of going against big businesses should do their research and hire the best legal counsels for their cases. This will help them build a solid case and present the same in a Court of law.